Serotonin Research ELISA™
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) belongs to the group of biogenic amines and is an intermediate product of the tryptophan metabolism. It plays an important role as a neurotransmitter in the regulation of different behavioral patterns such as motor activity, aggression, sexuality, appetite, and sleep.
Diseases which are associated with altered serotonin concentrations include disorders of the CNS, for example autism, epilepsy, schizophrenia and depression, and carcinoid tumors ot the intestine or bronchi.
The Serotonin Research ELISA™ offers a flexible protocol which is suitable for the high-sensitive quantitative measurement of Serotonin in any biological sample such as tissue homogenates, cell culture supernatant, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), platelet-poor-plasma, and cell lysates.
There is an increasing interest to elucidate the important roles catecholamines play in development, cardiovascular function, psychiatric disorders and behaviour, neurodegenerative diseases, sleep, mood, attention, learning and metabolism.
Research in these areas often requires sensitive and flexible methods which are able to quantify minute amounts of analytes – methods, which give reliable results even using the smallest sample volume.
The following group of Research ELISAs™ is designed for the high-sensitive quantification of Epinephrine (Adrenaline), Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline) or Dopamine. Any kind of biological sample can be used with a minimal sample volume as low as 1 µl. The assay sensitivities depend on sample volume – reaching the highest sensitivity with 750 µl of sample volume.
Reported applications comprise different kinds of tissue homogenates (e.g. brain homogenates), micro-dialysates, cell culture, and many other biological samples.
Please don’t hesitate to contact our lab specialists to establish your custom-made protocol.
The assays show the following common features:
- High sensitivity
- Small sample volumes
- Flexible protocols
- Designed to test various sample types from multiple species
- Elegant and efficient extraction method
- Freedom from drug interferences
- Single and multi parameter kits available
Any biological fluid/sample
Tryptophan in Urine, Serum, Plasma
L-Tryptophan is one of the essential amino acids for the human metabolism and must be part of its diet.
In humans it is the converted into Serotonin or catabolized to kynurenine through the enzyme IDO (indoleamine-2 ,3-dioxygenase). Increased IDO activity is an expression of neuro-endocrine-immunological dysregulation, which is often associated with depressive symptoms such as bipolar disorder (manic depression).
GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of mammalians and in general inhibits the activity of susceptible neurons.
It is formed in the CNS predominantely from L-glutamic acid and transmits its action by means of GABA-specific receptors.
The antagonist of this inhibitory neurotransmitter is the exhibitory transmitter Glutamate
Glutamic acid or Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of mammalians and a key molecule in metabolism.
The antagonists of this exciatatory neurotransmitter are the inhibitory transmitters with Serotonin and GABA being the most dominant. GABA is directly linked to Glutamate via the so-called Glutamine cycle thus allowing for a fast and subtle adjustment during the different physiological conditions.
Glutamate is involved in cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain and has also been implicated in epileptic seizures.
The Glutamate ELISA (BA E-2400) is a sensitive assay for the quantitative determination of Glutamate in any kind of biological sample such as urine, plasma, serum, tissue homogenates, cell culture, and cell lysates. As part of the sample preparation, a simple and versatile extraction (“sample clean-up device”; patent pending) enables this assay to be highly specific, showing no cross-reactivity to Glutamine. This assay is intended for research use only.
It is also utilized for the biosynthesis of glutathione, heme, creatine, nucleic acids, and uric acid. And it is a significant component of bile acids secreted into the lumen of the small intestine that is necessary for the digestion of dietary fat and the absorption of long-chain fatty acids.
Taken together Glycine plays an important role in metabolic regulation, anti-oxidative reactions, and neurological function.
The essential amino acid tryptophan is a constituent of proteins and can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway.
L-kynurenine is formed in the mammalian brain (40%) and is taken up from the periphery (60%), indicating that it can be transported across the blood-brain-barrier.
It can be converted by the inducible enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) into two other important compounds: the neuroprotective kynurenic acid and the neurotoxic quinolinic acid. The kynurenine pathway is also closely linked to the immune system, as different cytokines do influence the activity of the key enzymes.
An unbalanced tryptophan-kynurenine pathway is associated with different kind of diseases such as mental and psychotic disorders (e.g. depressions; Alzheimer´s disease; Huntington´s chorea), stress, and inflammatory neurological diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ALS).
LDN has developed an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) which is useful for measuring Kynurenine levels under different healthy and pathological conditions. This assay is meant for research use only.
Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid that is not incorporated into protein, and is present as a free amino acid in most biological fluids such as plasma, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. It is a byproduct of the enzymatic production of nitric oxide from the amino acid arginine and can be used as a surrogate marker for the NO synthesis.
Elevated NO synthesis plays a significant role in inflammatory processes and has been implaced in several autoimmune disorders.
The metabolism of citrulline is mainly divided between the intestine (synthesis) and the kidneys (degradation). Because of this specificity, citrulline can act as a reliable functional marker for these two organs. Severe renal failure (especially of the proximal tubules) is characterized by hypercitrullinaemia.
LDN has developed an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) which is useful for measuring Citrulline levels under different healthy and pathological conditions. The assay characteristics were established for the use of serum, plasma, urine and many other different kinds of biological samples.
This product group includes immunoassays for the determination of various hormones (steroid and protein-based hormones) from different animal species like rat and mouse (murine), dogs (canine), and horse (equine).
|ELISA – KIT||CATALOG||DETAILS|
|Testosterone Rat/Mouse ELISA||AR E-8000||SHOW MORE|
|Corticosterone Rat/Mouse ELISA||AR E-8100||SHOW MORE|
|Prolactin Rat ELISA||AR E-8200||SHOW MORE|
|Estrone-3-Sulfate Equine ELISA||AR E-8300||SHOW MORE|
|Prolactin Canine ELISA||AR E-8400||SHOW MORE|
|TSH Canine ELISA||AR E-8500||SHOW MORE|
|TSH Rat ELISA||AR E-8600||SHOW MORE|
|Progesterone Mouse/Rat||AR E-8700||SHOW MORE|
|Estradiol Rat||AR E-8800||SHOW MORE|